## Kirkmanâ€™s Schoolgirl Problem

Fifteen young ladies in a school walk out three abreast for seven days in succession: it is required to arrange them daily so that no two shall walk twice abreast.


The problem is also famously known as "social golfer problem": Twenty golfers wish to play in foursomes for 5 days. Is it possible for each golfer to play no more than once with any other golfer? ( http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SocialGolferProblem.html ).

This is naive and straightforward solution:

from z3 import *
import itertools

PERSONS, DAYS, GROUPS = 15, 7, 5
#PERSONS, DAYS, GROUPS = 20, 5, 5

# each element - group for each person and each day:
tbl=[[Int('%d_%d' % (person, day)) for day in range(DAYS)] for person in range(PERSONS)]

s=Solver()

for person in range(PERSONS):
for day in range(DAYS):

# one in pair must be equal, all others must differ:
def only_one_in_pair_can_be_equal(l1, l2):
assert len(l1)==len(l2)
expr=[]
for pair_eq in range(len(l1)):
tmp=[]
for i in range(len(l1)):
if pair_eq==i:
tmp.append(l1[i]==l2[i])
else:
tmp.append(l1[i]!=l2[i])
expr.append(And(*tmp))

# at this point, expression like this constructed:
# Or(
#	And(l1[0]==l2[0], l1[1]!=l2[1], l1[2]!=l2[2])
#	And(l1[0]!=l2[0], l1[1]==l2[1], l1[2]!=l2[2])
#	And(l1[0]!=l2[0], l1[1]!=l2[1], l1[2]==l2[2])
#   )

# enumerate all possible pairs.
for pair in itertools.combinations(range(PERSONS), r=2):
only_one_in_pair_can_be_equal (tbl[pair[0]], tbl[pair[1]])

print s.check()
m=s.model()

print "group for each person:"
print "person:"+"".join([chr(ord('A')+i)+" " for i in range(PERSONS)])
for day in range(DAYS):
print "day=%d:" % day,
for person in range(PERSONS):
print m[tbl[person][day]].as_long(),
print ""

def persons_in_group(day, group):
rt=""
for person in range(PERSONS):
if m[tbl[person][day]].as_long()==group:
rt=rt+chr(ord('A')+person)
return rt

print ""
print "persons grouped:"
for day in range(DAYS):
print "day=%d:" % day,
for group in range(GROUPS):
print persons_in_group(day, group)+" ",
print ""

sat
group for each person:
person:A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
day=0: 2 2 3 1 0 0 3 4 0 1 1 3 4 4 2
day=1: 2 1 2 4 3 1 4 4 2 1 0 3 0 3 0
day=2: 4 3 1 0 4 0 4 2 2 1 2 3 3 0 1
day=3: 4 3 1 4 2 1 3 1 0 2 3 4 2 0 0
day=4: 3 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 4 3 2 2 4 0 1
day=5: 2 4 1 1 4 3 3 4 0 0 2 0 1 2 3
day=6: 0 2 4 2 4 0 1 3 2 1 4 3 0 1 3

persons grouped:
day=0: EFI  DJK  ABO  CGL  HMN
day=1: KMO  BFJ  ACI  ELN  DGH
day=2: DFN  CJO  HIK  BLM  AEG
day=3: INO  CFH  EJM  BGK  ADL
day=4: BCN  DEO  FKL  AHJ  GIM
day=5: IJL  CDM  AKN  FGO  BEH
day=6: AFM  GJN  BDI  HLO  CEK


It took ~48s on my old Intel Xeon E3-1220 3.10GHz.

As in my previous example, I've tried to represent each number (group in which schoolgirl/golfer is) as a single bit:

from z3 import *
import itertools, math

PERSONS, DAYS, GROUPS = 15, 7, 5 # OK
#PERSONS, DAYS, GROUPS = 20, 5, 5 # no answer
#PERSONS, DAYS, GROUPS = 21, 10, 7 # no answer

# each element - group for each person and each day:
tbl=[[BitVec('%d_%d' % (person, day), GROUPS) for day in range(DAYS)] for person in range(PERSONS)]

s=Solver()

for person in range(PERSONS):
for day in range(DAYS):

# enumerate all variables
# we add Or(pair1!=0, pair2!=0) constraint, so two non-zero variables couldn't be present,
# but both zero variables in pair is OK, one non-zero and one zero variable is also OK:
def only_one_must_be_zero(lst):
for pair in itertools.combinations(lst, r=2):
# at least one variable must be zero:

# get two arrays of variables XORed. one element of this new array must be zero:
def only_one_in_pair_can_be_equal(l1, l2):
assert len(l1)==len(l2)
only_one_must_be_zero([l1[i]^l2[i] for i in range(len(l1))])

# enumerate all possible pairs:
for pair in itertools.combinations(range(PERSONS), r=2):
only_one_in_pair_can_be_equal (tbl[pair[0]], tbl[pair[1]])

print s.check()
m=s.model()

print "group for each person:"
print "person:"+"".join([chr(ord('A')+i)+" " for i in range(PERSONS)])
for day in range(DAYS):
print "day=%d:" % day,
for person in range(PERSONS):
print int(math.log(m[tbl[person][day]].as_long(),2)),
print ""

def persons_in_group(day, group):
rt=""
for person in range(PERSONS):
if int(math.log(m[tbl[person][day]].as_long(),2))==group:
rt=rt+chr(ord('A')+person)
return rt

print ""
print "persons grouped:"
for day in range(DAYS):
print "day=%d:" % day,
for group in range(GROUPS):
print persons_in_group(day, group)+" ",
print ""



This is way faster, ~1.5 seconds on the same CPU.

Unfortunately, sample SGP (social golfer problems) are out of reach. Yet? http://www.mathpuzzle.com/MAA/54-Golf%20Tournaments/mathgames_08_14_07.html.